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RAND Corporation - Evolution of US Military Policy

Tracing the evolution of the U.S. Army throughout American history, the authors of this four-volume series show that there is no such thing as a "traditional" U.S. military policy. Rather, the laws that authorize, empower, and govern the U.S. armed forces emerged from long-standing debates and a series of legislative compromises between 1903 and 1940.
 
Volume II focuses on the major laws enacted in the early 20th century that changed the federal government's relationship with the National Guard, established what would become today's Army Reserve, and improved the Army's ability to expand and develop trained specialists.

 
RAND Evolution US Military Policy - Volume 2 - Title Page
 
RAND Evolution US Military Policy - Figure S1
 
There are FOUR Volumnes, and an 84-page Summary Report.
 
Tracing the evolution of the U.S. Army throughout American history, the authors of this four-volume series show that there is no such thing as a "traditional" U.S. military policy. Rather, the laws that authorize, empower, and govern the U.S. armed forces emerged from long-standing debates and a series of legislative compromises between 1903 and 1940. Tracing the evolution of the U.S. Army throughout American history, the authors of this four-volume series show that there is no such thing as a "traditional" U.S. military policy. Rather, the laws that authorize, empower, and govern the U.S. armed forces emerged from long-standing debates and a series of legislative compromises between 1903 and 1940.
  • The Evolution of U.S. Military Policy from the Constitution to the Present, Volume I
    The Old Regime: The Army, Militia, and Volunteers from Colonial Times to the Spanish-American War (116 pages)

    Volume I traces the history of U.S. military policy from the colonial era through the Spanish-American War. This period is critical for understanding the genesis of the basic structure of today's Army and the various factors that informed that structure. For a combination of strategic, cultural, economic, ideological, and political reasons, in the 18th and 19th centuries the United States did not establish a standing army large enough to handle a major conflict and instead relied on a variety of mechanisms for raising volunteer units and marshaling state militias to expand or augment the Army. The Spanish-American War (1898) was a major turning point: The difficulties the United States faced in raising and equipping a large-enough Army for the conflict prompted led to major reforms in the early 20th century.
  • The Evolution of U.S. Military Policy from the Constitution to the Present, Volume II
    The Formative Years for U.S. Military Policy, 1898–1940 (172 pages)

    Volume II focuses on the major laws enacted in the early 20th century that changed the federal government's relationship with the National Guard, established what would become today's Army Reserve, and improved the Army's ability to expand and develop trained specialists.
  • The Evolution of U.S. Military Policy from the Constitution to the Present, Volume III
    Another World War and Cold War (180 pages)

    Volume III covers the period from 1940 to 1970 and examines how the Army, while retaining the basic legal underpinning established by 1940, evolved in light of the radically different security requirements associated with the nation's emergence as a superpower and the need to maintain forces overseas and to rapidly respond in support of alliance commitments. The wars in Korea and Vietnam, and associated debates best to generate the required forces and how to balance military requirements with political concerns, led ultimately to the development of Total Force Policy: an effort to eliminate the need for conscription, except in special circumstances, and to further professionalize U.S. military forces.
  • The Evolution of U.S. Military Policy from the Constitution to the Present, Volume IV
    The Total Force Policy Era, 1970–2015 (252 pages)

    Volume IV covers the period from 1970 to 2015, from changes to U.S. military policy that resulted from the Vietnam War through years of persistent conflict following the September 11th, 2001, terrorist attacks. In spite of significant changes in the strategic context during this period, the fundamental laws underpinning U.S. military policy remained largely unchanged. Volume IV also discusses how the demands of persistent conflict since the 9/11 terrorist attacks have led to increased use of individuals and units from the reserve components.
  • The Evolution of U.S. Military Policy from the Constitution to the Present (84-page Summary Report)
    The laws that govern the U.S. Army have changed little since 1940. These laws have become so familiar that many may assume they constitute a "traditional" U.S. military policy, emanating from the Constitution's division of federal and state powers. Drawing on a RAND study of the history of the U.S. Army and the evolution of laws that authorize, empower, and govern it, the authors of this report show that the current set of foundational laws for the Army were not an inevitable interpretation of the "raise and support armies" or "militia" clauses of the Constitution. Rather, U.S. military policy has evolved over time through changes in statutory law. These laws emerged from long-standing debates over the role of civilian-soldiers, the necessity of a standing professional force (i.e., the Regular Army), the relationship between the Army and the potential sources of manpower for expansion, the balance of federal and state authorities, and the nation's security needs. A series of legislative compromises between 1903 and 1940 established a consensus that forms the foundation of current military policy. By highlighting the evolution of military policy, this history introduces new questions about the so-called "traditional" nature of the Army that exists today and supplies a context for future efforts to rethink how the Army might continue to evolve to meet the nation's changing security needs.

 
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